• Bologna Process

    The Bologna Process is an agreement of European countries on higher education. It was signed on 19 June 1999 by 29 European countries as a joint declaration on ‘The European Higher Education Area [EHEA] as a key way to promote citizen’s mobility and employability based on international cooperation and standardization in Higher Education. It was not limited to EU countries and today, the Process unites 47 countries which are part of the project.

    The Bologna Process develops through action lines which are determined in the ministerial conferences. Every other year, ministers responsible for higher education from the 47 Bologna signatory states meet to measure progress and to set priorities for action. After Bologna (1999), they met in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007) Leuven/Louvain-La-Neuve (2009), Budapest and Vienna (2010).

    The main action lines are:

    ▪ Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees
    ▪ Adoption of a system essentially based on three cycles
    ▪ Recognition of qualifications (ECTS, Diploma Supplement)
    ▪ Promotion of mobility
    ▪ Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance
    ▪ Promotion of the European dimension in higher education
    ▪ Life Long Learning
    ▪ Social dimension and equal opportunities
    ▪ Employability


  • Diploma Supplement [DS]

    The Diploma Supplement aims to describe the qualification students received in a standard format that is easy to understand and easy to compare. It also describes the content of the qualification and the structure of the higher education system within which it was issued. The DS accompanies a higher education diploma, providing a standardized description of the nature, level, context, content and status of the studies completed by its holder. The Berlin ministerial summit of 2003 called for every student graduating as from 2005 to receive the Diploma Supplement automatically and free of charge.


    The EACEA [Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency] is responsible for the management of the European funding opportunities and networks in the fields of education and training, citizenship, youth, audiovisual and culture. Fully operational from the 1st of January 2006, the Executive Agency operates under supervision from its three parents Directorates-General of the European Commission:

    - Education and Culture (DG EAC)
    - Communication (DG COMM)
    - EuropeAid Development and Cooperation (DG DEVCO)

  • ECTS

    ECTS [European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System] is a currency of educational credit. It is a Learner centred system that focuses on student effort and based on the workload students need in order to achieve expected learning outcomes. ECTS makes teaching and learning in higher education more transparent across Europe and facilitates the recognition of all studies. The system allows for the transfer of learning experiences between different institutions, greater student mobility and more flexible routes to gain degrees. It also aids curriculum design and quality assurance.

  • EHEA

    The EHEA [European Higher Education Area] was launched along with the Bologna Process' decade anniversary, in March 2010, during the Budapest-Vienna Ministerial Conference. As the main objective of the Bologna Process since its inception in 1999, the EHEA was meant to ensure more comparable, compatible and coherent systems of higher education in Europe. Between 1999 - 2010, all the efforts of the Bologna Process members were targeted to creating the European Higher Education Area, that became reality with the Budapest-Vienna Declaration of March, 2010.

  • European Qualifications Framework [EQF]

    The European Qualifications Framework acts as a translation device to make national qualifications more readable across Europe, promoting workers and learners mobility between countries and facilitating their lifelong learning.

    8 levels covering different forms of learning including:

    ▪ Basic learning
    ▪ Vocational Education & Training
    ▪ Higher Education
    ▪ Informal learning, etc.

  • Learning Outcomes

    Learning outcomes are verifiable statements of what learners who have obtained a particular qualification, or completed a programme or its components, are expected to know, understand and be able to do. As such they emphasise the link between teaching, learning and assessment.

  • Lifelong Learning

    The European Commission’s Lifelong Learning Programme enables people at all stages of their lives to take part in stimulating learning experiences, as well as helping to develop the education and training sector across Europe.

  • NTO [National Tempus Office]

    The overall objective of the National Tempus Office (NTO) in Israel is to improve the relevance, effectiveness and impact of the Tempus programme in the country. In addition, NTO Israel disseminates information about additional European programmes such as Erasmus Mundus.

    The NTO actions:

    1. Information and promotion activities
    2. Assistance to potential applicants and beneficiaries
    3. Field monitoring
    4. Contact with key-Stakeholders
    5. Support to the team of Higher Education Reform Experts (HEREs)


    Tempus [Trans-European Mobility Programme for University Studies] is the European Union’s funded programme which supports the modernization of higher education in the EU's neighboring countries in the Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Western Balkans and the Mediterranean region, mainly through university cooperation projects. TEMPUS was established in 1990 by the European Commission. Until now three phases of Tempus were completed and currently we are at the fourth phase – TEMPUS IV (2007-2013) in which four rounds of calls for proposals have been published and the fifth call will be published in October 2011.

    The TEMPUS program encourages institutions in the EU Member States and partner countries to engage in structured cooperation through the establishment of "consortia". The "consortia" implement Joint European Projects with a clear set of objectives. Such projects may receive financial aid for two or three years.

  • Workload

    Workload indicates the time students typically need to complete all learning activities (such as lectures, seminars, projects, practical work, self-study and examinations) required to achieve the expected learning outcomes.